Neurally Mediated Syncope in Children and Adolescents: An Updated Narrative Review
Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva1, 2, *, Pamela Michelle Leite Oliveira2, Henrique Assis Fonseca Tonelli2, Zilda Maria Alves Meira2, Cleonice de Carvalho Coelho Mota3
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2022
E-location ID: e187419242205110
Publisher ID: e187419242205110
Article History:Received Date: 8/8/2021
Revision Received Date: 23/2/2022
Acceptance Date: 9/3/2022
Electronic publication date: 20/06/2022
Collection year: 2022
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Syncope presents a proportion of up to 25% among children and adolescents and accounts for 0.9% of emergency room visits. Its most frequent aetiology is neurally mediated syncope, which includes vasovagal syncope and orthostatic hypotension. Up to 70% of the paediatric population with reflex syncope is female. There are usually precipitating factors and prodromes. This mini-review will discuss the particularities of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, modified Calgary score, indications and accuracy of the head-up tilt test, classification, and pathophysiology in four sequential phases. Prognostic data and the non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches will also be reviewed and differences regarding reflex syncope in adults will be discussed.