Near Infrared Spectroscopy For Cerebral Hemodynamic Monitoring During Carotid Endarterectomy Under General Anesthesia
Letícia Cristina Dalledone Siqueira Rein1, *, Daniel Emílio Dalledone Siqueira2, Ana Terezinha Guillaumon2, Wagner Mauad Avelar3, Fernando Cendes3
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2022
E-location ID: e187419242203250
Publisher ID: e187419242203250
Article History:Received Date: 20/12/2021
Revision Received Date: 1/2/2022
Acceptance Date: 3/3/2022
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2022
Collection year: 2022
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation.
To describe the intraoperative behavior of NIRS variables used to evaluate hemodynamic response in patients with atherosclerotic disease undergoing carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia.
Fifteen volunteers with atherosclerotic carotid disease with indications for endarterectomy were evaluated. After selection of patients, carotid stenosis was confirmed by appropriate diagnostic methods. NIRS was used for intraoperative monitoring. The variables total hemoglobin (Hb), oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), and regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) were evaluated at three intraoperative time points: before, during, and after carotid clamping.
Results and Discussion:
Measurements recorded by NIRS showed that, during the first 5 min of clamp time, patients experienced a decline in O2Hb levels, an increase in HHb levels, and a marked decrease in rSO2. Hb remained constant throughout the procedure. At the post-clamping time point, HHb, O2Hb, and rSO2 returned to patterns similar to those observed before clamping.
NIRS was able to reliably and accurately identify the three stages of carotid endarterectomy and may predict the risk of cerebral hypoxia during carotid clamping under general anesthesia.