RESEARCH ARTICLE


Is there a Concordance between CHA2DS2 VASc and HAS-BLED Scores in Middle Eastern Patients with Nonvalvular AF? Analysis of the Jordan Atrial Fibrillation (JoFib) Study



Mohamad I. Jarrah1, *, Nasr Alrabadi2, Karem. H. Alzoubi3, 4, Qasim N. Mhaidat5, Ayman Hammoudeh6
1 Department of Internal Medicine, Interventional Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
3 Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacotherapeutics, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
4 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
5 Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
6 Department of Cardiology, Istishari Hospital, Amman, Jordan


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Jarrah et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; E-mails: jarrahmohammad16@gmail.com, mijarrah@just.edu.jo


Abstract

Background:

Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF) is a common arrhythmia that potentially contributes to stroke and systemic embolization. Anticoagulants may contribute to the risk of bleeding in these patients. Reports of NVAF on Middle Eastern populations are scarce and outdated. This study investigated the concordance between congestive heart failure, hypertension, ≥75 years of age, diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, 65 to 74 years of age group, sex category (CHA2DS2 VASc), and Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly (HAS-BLED) scores, and the risks of stroke and bleeding in Jordanian NVAF patients.

Methods:

Results were extracted from the Jordan Atrial Fibrillation (JoFib) multicenter registry (NCT03917992). To assess the risk of stroke, a CHA2DS2 VASc score was used. The HAS-BLED score was used to assess the risk of bleeding. Subgroup analysis for males and females was carried out.

Results:

We included 1823 NVAF patients, almost equally distributed among males and females. The overall mean age was 68.2 years. Most patients had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 (71.5%). Almost half of the patients were smokers, 45.5% had diabetes, and 76.3% had hypertension. Paroxysmal AF was the most common subtype (38%), followed by the permanent (28.6%), long-standing (17.3%), and persistent types (16.1%). Females had a significantly higher CHA2DS2 VASc score than males (p=0.012). For the risk of bleeding, 48.9% of patients had a low risk, 31.5% had intermediate risk, and 19.6% had a high risk. A correlation was found between the two scoring systems. Out of the 357 patients who had a high HAS-BLED score, 354 (99.2%) patients also had a high CHA2DS2 VASc score.

Conclusion:

In almost all NVAF patients with a high risk of bleeding (high HAS-BLED score), the use of anticoagulants is highly recommended and strongly indicated according to the CHA2DS2 VASc score stratification. Therefore, strict strategies of well-controlled administration of anticoagulants should always be considered and followed in Middle Eastern patients with NVAF and a high risk of bleeding.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, CHA2DS2 VASc, HAS-BLED, Concordance, Middle Eastern, Patients.