Angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, AGT T174M and Angiotensin-1- Converting Enzyme (ACE) I/D Gene Polymorphisms in Essential Hypertension: Effects on Ramipril Efficacy

Vana Kolovou1, 2, Evangelia Lagou2, Constantinos Mihas3, Vasiliki Giannakopoulou4, Niki Katsiki5, Aikaterini Kollia6, Filippos Triposkiadis7, Dimitris Degiannis2, Sophie Mavrogeni1, Genovefa Kolovou1, *
1 Cardiology Department, Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center Athens, Greece
2 Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center Athens, Greece
3 Internal Medicine Department, General Hospital of Kimi, Evia Island, Greece
4 Cardiology Department, Thriassio Hospital, Magoula, Greece
5 Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippocration Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
6 Orthopedic and Urologic Departments, Veterans Administration Hospital (NIMTS), Athens, Greece
7 Department of Cardiology, Larissa University Hospital, Larissa, Greece

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© Kolovou et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Ave 176 74 Athens, Greece; Tel: +30 210 9493520; Fax: +30 210 9493336; E-mail:



Hypertension, one of the most important risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease, is a major worldwide public health problem. Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms are thought to be associated with primary hypertension. In the present study, we examined the frequency of these gene polymorphisms in an adult population with and without essential hypertension. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms on ramipril treatment efficacy in the hypertensive patients.


A total of 166 adults (83 hypertensives and 83 normotensives) were involved in the study and genotyped for AGTM235T (rs699), AGTT174M (rs4762) and ACEI/D (rs1799752) gene polymorphisms.


The genotype and allele distribution of the AGTM235T variant significantly differed between hypertensives and normotensives [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57% (T vs M allele), 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.01 - 2.44; p=0.045 for hypertensives]. However, none of the 3 studied Simple Nucleotide Polymorphisms were associated with the blood pressure-lowering response to ramipril.


These results suggest that AGTM235T gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension. However, none of the AGTM235T, AGTT174M and ACEI/D gene polymorphisms influenced ramipril effectiveness.

Keywords: AGTM235T, AGTT174, ACEI/D gene polymorphisms, efficacy, hypertension, ramipril.