RESEARCH ARTICLE


Low Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Males and Females from a Sunny, Rich Country



Ayman El-Menyar*, 1, 2, Ali Rahil3, Khalid Dousa3, Walid Ibrahim3, Talal Ibrahim3, Rasha Khalifa3, Mohamed Osman Abdel Rahman4
1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Po Box 24144, Doha, Qatar
2 Hamad Medical corporation, Hamad General Hospital, Po Box 3050, Doha, Qatar
3 Department of internal medicine, Hamad General Hospital (HGH), Qatar
4 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, HGH, Qatar


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© El-Menyar et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Hamad Medical corporation Hamad general hospital, Po Box 3050, Doha, Qatar; Tel: +97444394029; Fax: +97444394031; E-mail: aymanco65@ yahoo.com


Abstract

Background:

Low serum vitamin (vit) D levels are common even in sunny countries. We assessed the prevalence and relationship of low vit D with cardiovascular risk factors in Qatar.

Methods:

Data were collected retrospectively from January 2008 and November 2009. In patients who had low vi t D (< 30 ng/ml ) , demographic and clinical profiles were analyzed and compared in males and females.

Results:

The overall mean level of vit D among 547 patients was 14.4±11 ng/mL. Among the low vitamin D group, 56% were females (mean age 48±12) and 44% males (mean age 49.6±13). Severely low vit D levels (<10 ng/mL) were found in 231 (46%) patients with mean age of 46±12 years. Compared with females, males with low vitamin D were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (38 vs 22%, p=0.001), dyslipidemia (41 vs 29%, p=0.007), myocardial infarction (5.5 vs 1.5%, p=0.001) and angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) (53 vs 17%, p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that in the presence of low vit D, age and hypertension were independent predictors of CAD (OR 1.07;95% CI: 1.02-1.11) and OR 8.0; 95% CI: 1.67-39.82), respectively.

Conclusions:

Our study supports the widespread prevalence of low vit D in sunny regions. Low vit D is associated with 3 times increase in the rate of MI among males. Hypertension increases the risk of CAD 8 times in the presence of low vit D regardless of gender.

Keywords: Low vitamin D, cardiovascular, risk, gender, Qatar..