RESEARCH ARTICLE


Kidney Function and Estimated Vascular Risk in Patients with Primary Dyslipidemia



Konstantinos Tziomalos1, Emmanuel S Ganotakis2, Irene F Gazi3, Devaki R Nair4, Dimitri P Mikhailidis1, *
1 Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Vascular Prevention Clinic) and Department of Surgery, Royal Free Campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), London, UK
2 Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
3 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Vascular Prevention Clinic), Royal Free Hospital, London, UK


© Tziomalos et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Academic Head, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital, University College Medical School, University College London (UCL), Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK; Tel: +44 20 7830 2258; Fax: +44 20 7830 2235; E-mail: MIKHAILIDIS@aol.com


Abstract

Background:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased vascular risk. Some studies suggested that considering markers of CKD might improve the predictive accuracy of the Framingham risk equation.

Aim:

To evaluate the links between kidney function and risk stratification in patients with primary dyslipidemia.

Methods:

Dyslipidemic patients (n = 156; 83 men) who were non-smokers, did not have diabetes mellitus or evident vascular disease and were not on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive agents were recruited. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. We estimated vascular risk using the Framingham equation.

Results:

In both men and women, there was a significant negative correlation between estimated Framingham risk and both eGFR and CrCl (p < 0.001 for all correlations). When men were divided according to creatinine tertiles, there were no significant differences in any parameter between groups. When men were divided according to either eGFR or CrCl tertiles, all estimated Framingham risks significantly increased as renal function declined (p<0.001 for all trends). When women were divided according to creatinine tertiles, all estimated Framingham risks except for stroke significantly increased as creatinine levels increased. When women were divided according to either eGFR or CrCl tertiles, all estimated Framingham risks significantly increased as renal function declined.

Conclusions:

Estimated vascular risk increases as renal function declines. The possibility that incorporating kidney function in the Framingham equation will improve risk stratification requires further evaluation.

Key Words: Creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease, vascular risk, Framingham risk score..