RESEARCH ARTICLE


Diastolic Dysfunction Criteria and Heart failure Readmission in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction



Steven J. Lavine1, *, Danielle Kelvas1
1 Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University and Washington University of St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue Campus Box 8086 St. Louis, MO 63110 , USA


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Creative Commons License
© 2023 Lavine and Kelvas

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University and Washington University of St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue Campus Box 8086 St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Tel: 314-454-7409; Fax: 314-362-4278; E-mail: Stevenjlavine@wustl.edu


Abstract

Background:

Advanced diastolic dysfunction (DDys) correlates with elevated LV filling pressures and predicts heart failure readmission (HF-R). As grade 2-3 DDys has predictive value for HF-R, and requires 2 of 3 criteria (left atrial volume index >34 ml/m2, E/e’>14, or tricuspid regurgitation velocity >2.8 m/s), we hypothesized that all 3 criteria would predict greater HF risk than any 2 criteria.

Methods:

In this single-center retrospective study that included 380 patients in sinus rhythm with HF and reduced ejection, we recorded patient characteristics, Doppler-echo, and HF-R with follow-up to 2167 days (median=1423 days; interquartile range=992-1821 days).

Results:

For grade 1 DDys (223 patients), any single criteria resulted in greater HF-R as compared to 0 criteria (HR=2.52, (1.56-3.88) p<0.0001) with an AUC (area under curve)=0.637, p<0.001. For grade 2 DDys (94 patients), there was greater HF-R for all 3 (vs. 0 criteria: HR=4.0 (2.90-8.36), p<0.0001). There was greater HF-R for 3 vs any 2 criteria (HR=1.81, (1.10-3.39), p=0.0222). For all 3 criteria, there was moderate predictability for HF-R (AUC=0.706, p<0.0001) which was more predictive than any 2 criteria (AUC difference 0.057, (0.011-0.10), p=0.009). For grade 3 DDys (63 patients), E/A>2+2-3 criteria identified a subgroup with the greatest risk of HF-R (HR=5.03 (4.62-22.72), p<0.0001) compared with 0 DDys criteria with moderate predictability for 2-3 criteria (AUC=0.726, p<0.0001) exceeding E/A>2+0-1 criteria (AUC difference=0.120, (0.061-0.182), p<0.001).

Conclusion:

Increasing the number of abnormal criteria increased the risk and predictive value of HF-R for grade 1-3 DDys in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction.

Keywords: Diastolic dysfunction, Heart failure, Ejection fraction, Left ventricular dysfunction, Patient readmission, Echocardiography, Doppler, Mitral valve.