Predictors of Impaired Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Preserved Ejection Fraction
Ahmed A. Noori1, *, Mudhafar A. Barzani2
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2022
E-location ID: e187419242212020
Publisher ID: e187419242212020
Article History:Received Date: 14/6/2022
Revision Received Date: 29/9/2022
Acceptance Date: 20/10/2022
Electronic publication date: 30/12/2022
Collection year: 2022
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Early identification of hypertensive patients at risk of heart failure (HF) helps guide treatment intensification and predict prognosis. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) uncovers subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (SLVSD) in patients with hypertension (HT) and preserved LV ejection fraction (PLVEF). STE is unavailable and/or underutilized in our locality for financial and technical reasons.
We aim to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with and/or predictive of impaired GLS in hypertensive patients with PLVEF.
In this single-clinic, cross-sectional, observational study, 100 hypertensive patients with PLVEF were examined using conventional and 2D STE.
The average GLS was found to be mildly reduced (-18.4 ± 2.2%) in the study group. Lower GLS (than -19%) was more common among patients with poorly controlled HT (Odds Ratio (OR)=9), being on multiple anti-hypertensive agents (OR=5), positive Sokolow-Lyon electrocardiographic criteria (OR=4.3), and obesity (OR=2). Conventional echocardiographic parameters predicting impaired GLS included: mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) (p=0.001), inter-ventricular septal thickness (IVSd) (p=0.003), LV mass (p=0.003), and LV remodelling (p=0.02). The aortic acceleration-to-ejection time ratio (AT/ET) had a good correlation with GLS (p=0.034). The novel product (IVSd x AT/ET) ≥2.7 mm was found to be the best predictor of GLS worse than -19% (AU ROC=0.8, 95% CI [0.68-0.93]; p=0.001).
In hypertensive patients with PLVEF, GLS was found to correlate well with blood pressure (BP) control, body size, measures of LV mass, and MAPSE. These parameters predict at least 50% of the variance in GLS and could help practitioners with limited access to STE in risk-stratifying hypertensive patients.