RESEARCH ARTICLE


High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Patients with Coronary Artery in-stent Restenosis: A Case-control Study



Hussein M. Ismail1, *
iD
, Ahmed O. Abaza2, Gamela M. Nasr1, Hesham Hegazy1
1 Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
2 Department of Cardiology, Egypt Air Hospital, Cairo, Egypt


© 2021 Ismail et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt;
E-mails: husseinismail@med.suez.edu.eg, drhussein72@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of In-Stent Restenosis (ISR). High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is positively associated with major cardiovascular events.

Aim:

We aimed to investigate the hsCRP inflammatory response to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients with coronary ISR vs. patients without ISR.

Methods:

This case-control study included 80 CAD patients previously treated with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Patients had Coronary Angiography (CAG) because of chest pain or equivalent symptoms and were subdivided into 2 groups. Group A (n=40) included CAD patients with ISR. Group B (n=40) included age and gender-matched controls with CAD but without ISR. Serum hsCRP levels were obtained before PCI (baseline) and 8, 16, 24 h post-PCI.

Results:

At baseline (before intervention/CAG), the hsCRP level was increased in the ISR group compared with the No-ISR group (p=0.007). There were 36 (90%) patients in the ISR group who had a high hsCRP (>3 mg/L) compared with 25 (62.5%) patients in the No-ISR group. Also, there was a significant relationship between high hsCRP and the ISR. Patients with ISR had higher frequencies and percentages of elevated CRP than the no-ISR control group. This difference was maintained for all measurements, baseline, after 8, 16, and 24 h (p<0.05). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the ISR group revealed that mean hsCRP differed significantly between serial measurements (p<0.001). In contrast, in the control group, the mean hsCRP did not differ significantly between the serial measurements (p=0.65).

Most of our patients (n=66, 82.5%) had 1-vessel CAD disease, and the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was significantly affected in 46 patients (57.5%). Management of restenosis was accomplished mainly by stenting by DES in 29 patients (72.5%).

Conclusion:

Patients with ISR had substantially higher pre- and post-PCI hsCRP levels than the no-ISR controls. This difference was maintained up to 24h post-PCI. Conversely, the mean hsCRP did not significantly differ at the follow-up points for the controls without ISR.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, In-stent restenosis, High sensitivity C-reactive protein, Stenting, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Drug-eluting stents.