RESEARCH ARTICLE


Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease



Amos Tambo1, *, Mohsin H.K. Roshan1, Nikolai P. Pace2
1 Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta- Msida, Malta
2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Biomedical Sciences Building, Msida, Malta


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© Tambo et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta- Msida, Malta; Tel: (+356) 99179052; E-mail: amos.tambo.13@um.edu.mt


Abstract

Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Hypogonadism, Testosterone, Vascular biology.