Is Vitamin D Deficiency a New Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease?

Natália Ribeiro Mandarino *, 1, Francisco das Chagas Monteiro Júnior 2, João Victor Leal Salgado 3, Joyce Santos Lages 2, Natalino Salgado Filho 4
1 Postgraduate Course in Health Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, Brazil
2 Department of Cardiology, Federal University of Maranhão, Brazil
3 Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, Brazil
4 Department of Nephrology, Federal University of Maranhão, Brazil

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2996
Abstract HTML Views: 736
PDF Downloads: 484
Total Views/Downloads: 4216
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1264
Abstract HTML Views: 430
PDF Downloads: 346
Total Views/Downloads: 2040

Creative Commons License
© Mandarino et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Rua Santa Luzia, 27, Quintas do Calhau, São Luís-MA, CEP 65072-008, Brazil; Tel: 559881269182; Fax: 559821087000; E-mail:


The role of vitamin D in the regulation of bone metabolism has been well established. However, in recent years, many studies have demonstrated that its role extends far beyond bone health. Growing evidence has shown a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its cardiovascular protective effects are still not completely understood, but there is evidence that it participates in the regulation of renin-angiotensin system and the mechanisms of insulin sensitivity and activity of inflammatory cytokines, besides its direct cardiovascular actions. In this review, several studies linking vitamin D deficiency with cardiometabolic risk as well as small randomized trials that have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of its supplementation are presented. However, large randomized placebo-controlled studies are still needed before we can definitively establish the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Cardiometabolic risk, Cardiovascular disease, Risk factor, Supplementation, Vitamin D deficiency.