Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults with Previously Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Descriptive Study from a Middle Eastern Arab Population

Jawad A Al-Lawati1, Mohammed N. Barakat1, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani*, 2, 3, Medhat K. Elsayed4, Masoud Al-Maskari5, Nawar M Al-Lawati6, Ali Jaffer Mohammed7
1 Department of Non-communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman
2 Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos Univer-sity, Muscat, Oman
3 Gulf Health Research, Muscat, Oman
4 Department of Statistics, Directorate General of Planning, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman
5 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
6 Mutrah Health Center, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman
7 Directorate General of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman

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© Al-Lawati et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Al-Khodh, PC-123, Sultanate of Oman; Tel: +968-2414-4420; Fax: +968-2414-4430; E-mail:



Despite the high burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Oman, there are scarce data from a nationally representative sample on the level of glycaemia and other cardiovascular (CVD) risk factor control.


To estimate the proportion of patients with T2DM at goal for glycaemia and CVD risk factors using the National Diabetes Guidelines (NDG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical care guidelines; and to assess the quality of selected services provided to patients with T2DM.


A sample of 2,551 patients (47% men) aged ≥20 years with T2DM treated at primary health care centers was selected. Patient characteristics, medical history and treatment were collected from case notes, Diabetes Registers and computer frameworks including the use of the last 3 laboratory investigations results and blood pressure (BP) readings recorded in 2007.


The overall mean age of the cohort was 54±13 years with an average median duration of diabetes of 4 (range 2 to 6) years. Over 80% of patients were overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 Kg/m2). Sixty-nine percent were on oral anti-diabetic medication, 52% on anti-hypertensives and 40% on lipid lowering drugs. Thirty percent of patients were at goal for glycosylated haemoglobin level (<7%), 26% for BP (systolic/diastolic <130/80 mmHg), 55% for total cholesterol (<5.2 mmol/l), 4.5% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.8 mmol/l), 52% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (>1 mmol/l for men, >1.3 mmol/l for women), and 61% for triglycerides (<1.7 mmol/l). Over 37% had micro-albuminuria and 5% had diabetic nephropathy.


Control of hyperglycaemia and other CVD risk factor appears to be suboptimal in Omani patients with T2DM and need to be addressed in the triad of patient, physician and health system.

Keywords: : Diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin Alc, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Oman..