Cardiac Ischemia and Ischemia/Reperfusion Cause Wide Proteolysis of the Coronary Endothelial Luminal Membrane: Possible Dysfunctions

Blanca Arroyo-Flores1, Erika Chi-Ahumada1, Erika Briones-Cerecero2, Alma Barajas-Espinosa1, Sandra Perez-Aguilar1, Ana Barba de la Rosa2, Maureen Knabb3, Rafael Rubio1, *
1 Departamento de Fisiologia y Farmacologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
2 Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
3 Department of Biology, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, USA

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© Arroyo-Flores et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Physiology, Facility of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Venustiano Carranza 2405, Los Filtros, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216, Mexico; Tel: 52 444 826 2455; E-mail:



Ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) are common clinical insults that disrupt the molecular structure of coronary vascular endothelial luminal membrane (VELM) that result in diverse microvasculature dysfunctions. However, the knowledge of the associated biochemical changes is meager. We hypothesized that ischemia and I/R-induced structural and functional VELM alterations result from biochemical changes. First, these changes need to be described and later the mechanisms behind be identified.


During control conditions, in isolated perfused rat hearts VELM proteins were labeled with biotin. The groups of hearts were: control (C), no flow ischemia (I; 25 min), and I/R (I; 25 min, reperfusion 30 min). The biotinylated luminal endothelial membrane proteins in these three different groups were examined by 2-D electrophoresis and identified. But, it must be kept in mind the proteins were biotin-labeled during control.


A comparative analysis of the protein profiles under the 3 conditions following 2D gel electrophoresis showed differences in the molecular weight distribution such that MWC > MWI > MWI/R. Similar analysis for isoelectric points (pHi) showed a shift toward more acidic pHi under ischemic conditions. Of 100 % proteins identified during control 66% and 88% changed their MW-pHi during ischemia and I/R respectively. Among these lost proteins there were 9 proteins identified as adhesins and G-protein coupled receptors.

General significance:

I and I/R insults alter MW-pHi of most luminal glycocalyx proteins due to the activation of nonspecific hydrolizing mechanisms; suspect metalloproteases and glycanases. This makes necessary the identification of hydrolyzing enzymes reponsible of multiple microvascular dysfunctions in order to maintain the integrity of vascular endothelial membrane. VELM must become a target of future therapeutics.

Keywords: Luminal endothelial membrane, G-protein coupled receptors, Adhesins, Metalloproteases, Glycanases, Luminal endothelial solutes exclusion zone..