Clinical Features of Cardio-Renal Syndrome in a Cohort of Consecutive Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Ward

F Fabbian1, *, M Pala1, A De Giorgi1, A Scalone2, C Molino1, F Portaluppi1, D.P Mikhailidis3, R Manfredini1
1 Clinica Medica, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
2 Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
3 Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Vascular Disease Prevention Clinics), University College London Medical School, London, UK

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© Fabbian et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Hospital, Corso Giovecca, 203, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy; Tel: +39 0532 236374; Fax: +39 0532 238539; E-mail:



Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidney whereby interactions between the 2 organs can occur. We recorded the clinical features of CRS in patients consecutively admitted to an Internal Medicine ward.

Patients and Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed the anthropometric, history, clinical, biochemical and treatment characteristics in 438 out of 2,998 subjects (14.6%) admitted to our unit (from June 2007 to December 2009), diagnosed with CRS, according to Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) recommendations. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) was calculated using several equations: MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; 2 variations GFRMDRD186, GFRMDRD175), Mayo, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Cockroft-Gault.


Mean age was 80±8 years, 222 (50.6%) were males, 321 (73.2%) were smokers, 229 (52.2%) were diabetic, 207 (47.2%) had a history of acute myocardial infarction, 167 (38.1%) had angina, 135 (30.8%) were affected by cerebrovascular disease, 339 (77.3%) had peripheral arterial disease. CRS was type 1 in 211 cases (48.2%), type 2 in 96 (21.9%), type 3 in 88 (20.1%), type 4 in 29 (6.6%) and type 5 in 14 (3.2%). eGFR, calculated by different formulae, ranged between 31 and 36 ml/min/1.73 m2. GFR was lower in CRS type 3 than in the other types, and the values ranged between 24 and 27 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean hospital length-of-stay (LOS) was 9.8±6.3 days. Diuretics were the most prescribed medication (78.7%); only 5 patients underwent haemodialysis.


CRS is common, especially in the elderly. CRS Type 1 was the prevalent subset and patients had stage 3-4 renal insufficiency. Results obtained from the GFR equations were similar although the Mayo equation tended to overestimate the eGFR.

Keywords: Cardio-renal syndrome, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, renal function, heart disease. .