Effects of Improving Glycemic Control with Insulin on Leptin, Adiponectin, Ghrelin and Neuropeptidey Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Pilot Study
Niki Katsiki1, 2, Dimitri P Mikhailidis2, *, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou3, Triantafillos P Didangelos1, John G Yovos4, Dimitrios T Karamitsos1
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2011
First Page: 136
Last Page: 147
Publisher ID: TOCMJ-5-136
Article History:Received Date: 25/5/2011
Revision Received Date: 30/5/2011
Acceptance Date: 31/5/2011
Electronic publication date: 20/6/2011
Collection year: 2011
open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
Insulin therapy is associated with weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several peptides are implicated in appetite control. We evaluated the effects of insulin-induced improved glycaemic control on leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels and patient characteristics.
Consecutive T2DM patients (n = 90) were divided into 2 groups: Group A: 45 insulin-naïve uncontrolled (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; HbA1c >7%) patients on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) who converted to insulin monotherapy. Group B: 45 well-controlled (HbA1c <7%) patients on OHAs. Both groups were monitored at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Males and females were analyzed separately because some hormone levels differ between genders.
In both genders, insulin therapy (Group A) was associated with significant (p = 0.003 to <0.001) increases in weight, body mass index and leptin levels and significant decreases in glucose, HbA1c and NPY levels. In male insulin-treated patients a significant increase in adiponectin levels (p = 0.008) was observed. There were significant correlations (p = 0.016 to <0.001) between leptin levels, waist circumference and body fat in all patient groups, except group B males.
Changes in leptin, adiponectin and NPY levels may occur after insulin-induced improved glycaemic control. These changes may be influenced by gender, weight, body fat and HbA1c.