Anaemia and Long Term Mortality in Heart Failure Patients: A Retrospective Study

Mette Charlot1, *, Christian Torp-Pedersen1, Nana Valeur1, Marie Seibæk2, Peter Weeke1, Lars Køber3
1 Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark
2 Department of Cardiology, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
3 The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1035
Abstract HTML Views: 535
PDF Downloads: 259
Total Views/Downloads: 1829
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 560
Abstract HTML Views: 327
PDF Downloads: 181
Total Views/Downloads: 1068

Creative Commons License
© Charlot et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, PA Forskning, Post 67, Niels Andersens Vej 65, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark; Tel: +45 39978717; Fax: + 4570201281; E-Mail:



Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up.


We evaluated survival data for 1518 patients with heart failure randomized into the Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide (DIAMOND) trial. The follow-up time was from 13 to 15 years. After 15 years 11.5% of the patients were still alive.


Anaemia was present in 34% of the patients. 264 (17%) had mild, 152 (10%) had moderate and 98 (7%) had severe anaemia. Hazard ratio of death for patients with mild anaemia compared with patients with no anaemia was 1.27 (1.11-1.45, p<0.001), for moderate anaemia 1.48 (1.24-1.77, p<0.001) and for severe anaemia 1.82 (1.47-2.24, p<0.001), respectively. In multivariable analyses anaemia was still associated with increased mortality with hazard ratios of 1.19 (1.04–1.37, p=0.014) for mild anaemia, 1.23 (1.03–1.48, p=0.024) for moderate anaemia and 1.33 (1.07–1.66, p=0.010) for severe anaemia, respectively. In landmark analysis the increased mortality for mild anaemia was only significant during the first 2 years, while moderate anaemia remained significant for at least 5 years. There were too few patients left with severe anaemia after 5 years to evaluate the importance on mortality beyond this time.


Anaemia at the time of diagnosis of heart failure is an independent factor for mortality during the following years but loses its influence on mortality over time.

Keywords: Anaemia, heart failure, mortality. .