GPIIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonism Using Small Molecules Provides no Additive Long-Term Protection after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention as Compared to Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin

Michele Schiariti1, 2, Angela Saladini1, Francesco Papalia2, Placido Grillo1, Cristina Nesta1, Domenico Cuturello2, Bindo Missiroli1, Paolo Emilio Puddu2, *
1 S. Anna Hospital, Catanzaro University “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy
2 The Department of the Heart and Great Vessels “A. Reale”, University “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1400
Abstract HTML Views: 688
PDF Downloads: 328
Total Views/Downloads: 2416
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 675
Abstract HTML Views: 409
PDF Downloads: 227
Total Views/Downloads: 1311

Creative Commons License
© Schiariti et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Dipartimento del Cuore e Grossi Vasi “Attilio Reale”, UOC Biotecnologie Applicate alle Malattie Cardiovascolari, Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Viale del Policlinico, 155, Rome 00161, Italy; Tel: +39.06.4455291; Fax: +39.06.4441600; E-mail:



There is some controversy as to whether tirofiban or eptifibatide, two small anti-aggregating drugs (AAD), may reduce the incidence of composite ischemic events within one year in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the real clinical world.


We compared consecutive patients on oral double AAD (with clopidogrel and aspirin) who underwent PCI (n=207) and patients who were on single AAD and received a second AAD, just prior to PCI, and either high-dose tirofiban or double-bolus eptifibatide (double AAD plus small molecules group, n=666). The primary end point (incidence of composite ischemic events within one year) included death, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stent thrombosis or repeat PCI or coronary bypass surgery (related to the target vessel PCI failure) and was modelled by Cox’s regression.


There were 89 composite ischemic events: 24 (11.6%) in double AAD alone and 65 (9.8%) in double AAD plus small molecules groups (log-rank test: p=0.36). Incidences by type of ischemic events were similar between the 2 groups. Based on 21 potential covariates fitted simultaneously, adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals) showed that age (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.06, p=0.01), diabetes (HR 1.68, 1.01-2.79, p=0.05) and intra aortic balloon pump (HR 5.12, 2.36-11.10, p=0.0001) were significant risk factors whereas thrombolysis by tenecteplase (HR 0.35, 0.13-0.98, p=0.05) and having had hypertension or anti-hypertensive treatment (HR 0.58, 0.36-0.93, p=0.03) were significant protectors for events. Whether small molecules were present provided a non significant additional benefit as compared to double AAD alone (HR 0.83, 0.51-1.36, p=0.46). Pre-PCI CK-MB were not useful to predict events (HR 1.01, 0.99-1.01, p=0.17).


In clinical world patients undergoing PCI (rescue plus primary <13%) while on double AAD, based on clopidogrel plus aspirin, small molecules (tirofiban or eptifibatide) provided no additive long-term protection against the occurrence of composite ischemic events whereas thrombolysis by tenecteplase did.

Keywords:: GP IIb/IIIa, tirofiban high-dose, eptifibatide double-bolus, clopidogrel, aspirin., tenecteplase, Thrombolysis, double anti-aggregation, ischemic events, PCI..