Impact of Advances in Invasive Cardiology on Cardiac Surgery

Ahmed A Alsaddique*
King Fahad Cardiac Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 7805, Riyadh, 11472, Saudi Arábia

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1509
Abstract HTML Views: 670
PDF Downloads: 310
Total Views/Downloads: 2489
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 631
Abstract HTML Views: 422
PDF Downloads: 230
Total Views/Downloads: 1283

Creative Commons License
© Ahmed A. Alsaddique; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the King Fahad Cardiac Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 7805, Riyadh, 11472, Saudi Arábia; Tel: 966 1 469-5275; Fax: 966 1 467-9493; E-mail:



There is a noticeable decline in the number of patients who undergo coronary artery revascularization procedures. The change is definite as it is reported by many centers around the world. This trend is of great concern to cardiac surgeons because of its impact on their practice, its adverse effect on training and the degree of uncertainty it throws into future of the specialty.


The data of the cardiac catheterization laboratory at the King Fahad Cardiac Center in the period between 1986 and 2006 was examined looking at the changing pattern of management of patients who undergo cardiac catheterization.


In the early years, angioplasty was attempted in around 10% of patients leaving the rest for surgical consideration or medical therapy. Currently only 15% of patients who undergo selective coronary angiography are referred for surgery. The majority are offered angioplasty and stenting. The trend is towards more catheter-based interventions and less towards surgery.


Our findings are in agreement with the general consensus about the specialty. Cardiac surgeons should perhaps consider acquiring new skills which may be outside the operating room. Adding catheter based intervention particularly in valves to cardiac surgery training would be a bonus for the future surgeons that will give them the necessary edge to meet the new challenges. It is incumbent on the leaders in the field to establish a clear strategy for the future.


Impact of advances in invasive cardiology on cardiac surgery, based on actual analysis of the pattern of referrals to surgery of over two decades.

Key Words: Challenges facing cardiac surgery..