RESEARCH ARTICLE

Risk Stratification and in Hospital Morality in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Bahrain

The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal 21 Feb 2018 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874192401812010007

Abstract

Background:

Risk factors and short-term mortality in patients presented with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Bahrain has not been evaluated before.

Aim:

In this prospective observational study, we aim to determine the clinical risk profiles of patients with ACS in Bahrain and describe the incidence, pattern of presentation and predictors of in-hospital clinical outcomes after admission.

Methods:

Patients with ACS were prospectively enrolled over a 12 month period. The rate of incidence of risk factors in patients was compared with 635 non-cardiac patient admissions that matched for age and gender. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict poor outcomes in patients with ACS. The variables were ages >65 years, body mass index (BMI) >28 kg/m2, GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) score >170, history of diabetes mellitus (DM), systolic hypertension >180 mmHg, level of creatinine >160 μmol/l and Heart Rate (HR) on admission >90 bpm, serum troponin rise and ST segment elevation on the ECG.

Results:

Patients with ACS (n=635) were enrolled consecutively. Mean age was 61.3 ± 13.2 years, with 417 (65.6%) male. Mean age for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n=156) compared with non-STEMI (NSTEMI, n=158) and unstable angina (UA, n=321) was 56.5± 12.8 vs 62.5±14.0 years respectively. In-hospital mortality was 5.1%, 3.1% and 2.5% for patients with STEMI, NSTEMI, and UA, respectively. In STEMI patients, thrombolytic therapy was performed in 88 (56.5%) patients and 68 (43.5%) had primary coronary angioplasty (PCI). The predictive value of different clinical variables for in-hospital mortality and cardiac events in the study were: 2.8 for GRACE score >170, 3.1 for DM, 2.2 for SBP >180 mmHg, 1.4 for age >65 years, 1.8 for BMI >28, 1.7 for creatinine >160 μmol/L, 2.1 for HR >90 bpm, 2.2 for positive serum troponin and 2.3 for ST elevation.

Conclusion:

Patients with STEMI compared with NSTEMI and UA were of younger age. There was higher in-hospital mortality in STEMI compared with NSTEMI and UA patients. The most significant predictors of death or cardiac events on admission in ACS were DM, GRACE Score >170, systolic hypertension >180 mmHg, positive serum troponin and HR >90 bpm.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndromes, Bahrain, Risk factors, Mortality, GRACE score.
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