The influence of biomarkers in human lifespan has been investigated but with no clear results yet.

Materials and methods:

Lipids, Uric Acid (UA), Adiponectin (ADIPOQ), Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) proteins, as well as CETP, ADIPOQ, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and ACE-gene polymorphisms were evaluated in 149 Greek individuals. The Long-Lived Families (LON) (n=84) comprised of 3 generations: long-lived aged ≥90 years (P), offspring (FL1) and their grandchildren (FL2), while the Short-Lived Families (EAD) (n=65) where both parents died <75 years, comprised of 2 generations: middle-aged (FD1) and children (FD2).


Serum CETP and IGF-1 levels were lower, whereas AdipoQ concentrations were higher in P compared with FL1 and FL2 members (CETP: p = 0.03 for both comparisons; IGF-1 p < 0.001 for both comparisons and ADIPOQ: p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Furthermore, serum triglycerides, UA and glucose concentrations were higher in FD1 compared with FD2 subjects (p=0.001, 0.02 and ≤0.001, respectively). In FD2 and FL2, CETP levels were lower in individuals with B2B2 compared with B1B1 genotype (p=0.007). Additionally, ACE concentrations were higher in individuals with DD compared with II genotype in both Families (p=0.001). After adjustment for age and gender, CETP levels were lower in P and FL2 individuals with B2B2 compared with the B1B1 genotype (p=0.004 and 0.007, respectively).


Increase serum TGs, UA and GL concentrations were higher in the middle-aged individuals compared with their children in families independently of their lifespan. The serum adiponectin concentration was the highest in the oldest old individuals implying beneficial influence on lifespan. Independently of family’s lifespan history, the youngest individuals with CETPB2B2 genotype, compared with individuals with CETPB1B1 genotypes, had lower serum CETP concentrations. The knowledge of the unfavourable gene(s)influencing human lifespan may be helpful in encouraging individuals to follow healthier lifestyle habits and better control their high-risk biomarkers.

Keywords: Uric acid, Adiponectin, Insulin-like growth factor, Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 genes, Lifespan, Longevity.
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